Advertisers’ Association of Ireland, a body for brand owners


Advance booking deadline, most prevalent in TV, Radio and Outdoor.


May also be called EB (Early Booking) Media owners impose a strict early booking incentive to advertisers. For TV, the maximum discount is gained upon booking before the advanced booking deadline of approximately 6-12 weeks in advance. This can vary by product category.

Above the fold    

Content or advertising that can be seen on the screen without having  to scroll down.

Actual  Delivery           

The actual TVR’s delivered by the relevant Broadcasters under a booking agreement as reported by AGB Nielsen Media Research.


Audit Bureau of Circulation.  Company that certifies circulation figures for newspapers.

Accordion Insert

An ad inserted in a magazine, folded with an accordion-style fold.

Artificial  Intelligence    

Or AI can be defined as “the technology where human intelligence is simulated on machines”. In simple words, AI can be described as computer systems that can learn, think, understand and behave like humans.

Addressable  TV

The ability to show different ads to different households while they are watching the same program.

Audience duplication      

The number of people who saw or heard more than one of the programs or publications in which an ad was placed.

Augmented Reality

Or AR can be defined as “the use of computer technology to enhance  our current/real environment”. Unlike VR, which completely removes us from our normal environment and takes us to a whole new environment, AR just augments our surroundings by adding some type of graphics, sounds, videos, text, etc. The main purpose of Augmented Reality is to provide real-time interaction with our surroundings.


Above-The-Line.  Traditional media advertising i.e. Press, TV, Radio, Outdoor and Cinema as opposed to other forms of marketing communication.  Term, which is becoming increasingly obsolete.

Ad Blocking                  

A technology, which allows for blocking ads before they are loaded by the web browser. That means that you are saving bandwidth and the page is rendered faster within your browser. For most people, it takes the form of browser extensions such as AdBlock BOGGI or Adblock Plus, which are nearly effortless to install on Google’s Chrome and Mozilla’s Firefox browsers. Some ad blocker makers have also made dedicated mobile ad blocking browsers.

 Ad Exchange                  

Most commonly used in digital, Advertising exchanges are open marketplaces that allow publishers and advertisers to connect (same as a stock exchange). They facilitate transactions, but do not take ownership of inventory

 Ad Impression                 

An advertisement's single appearance on a user’s browser. For example, if the page you're on shows three ads, that's three ad impressions. Advertisers use impressions to measure the number of views their ads receive, and publishers in Ireland sell ad space according to impressions served.

 Ad Serving   

Delivery of online adverts to an end user’s computer by an ad management system. The system allows different online adverts to be served to target different audience groups and can serve adverts across multiple sites.  DoubleClick is the most popular and widely used Ad Serving solution provider globally.

Ad Spend                  

Shortened version of 'advertising expenditure'. Ad spend is used to monitor brands advertising expenditure across each media by month and by media company.

Ad  Viewability                

As defined by the IAB, a digital display ad impression is considered viewable if at least 50% of its total area is visible in a user’s browser window and remains there for at least one second, post ad render.


An algorithm is any piece of automated code that accepts some number of variables and data, [then] uses those variables and data to make decisions. Most notably linked to Google Search and Programmatic advertising. Think of an algorithm just like a recipe. A recipe provides detailed directions that convert ingredients into a dish, and there is a wide range of different recipes.  In the case of algorithms, the ingredients are various types and pieces of data and the dish is information.  So, an algorithm is a precise method for converting data into useful information. Within the context of programmatic buying, the data ingredients available relate to the placement, the time of day, the user’s location, the cookie ID and any related historical or third-party data available.  And of course, the performance goals of the campaign, pacing or other constraints, and any observed performance to date (potentially the result of a prior output of the algorithm). Traditionally these different dimensions are considered and decided separately by simple algorithms, generally simple enough that humans can execute them. 

Ambient Media

Non-mainstream i.e. banners on buildings


Average revenue per user – subscriber to cable or telecommunication companies. 


Advertising Standards Authority.

Agency Trading Desk (ATD)         

Is best described as the specialist arm of large media buying groups. They focus predominantly on  digital display media and RTB. Each desk represents a specific agency. Agency buying desks do not have core RTB technology to enable campaigns in real-time, for this they use a 3rd party provider, usually a DSP. Dentsu Aegis trading desk is called Amnet.


Is a term used to show the level of audience duplication.


Application Programming Interface (API)

API’s are carefully thought out pieces of code created by programmers for their applications (Google, Facebook etc…) that allow other applications to interact with their application. It is the means or the medium via which these two systems communicate. API’s are generally invisible to the end users. They are specially crafted to expose only chosen functionality, content and/or data.


A media audit consists of an assessment of the effectiveness of media planning and/or buying, normally involving comparison with similar or competitive campaigns.


Audio Visual – term to describe both TV and Video on Demand (VOD).

Agency Volume Bonus         

Commonly referred to as AVBs, simply another name for Rebate.  These deals typically take the form of cash incentives offered  to media agencies by media owners to encourage them to spend more on their properties.  The value of AVBs, which vary by media and by spending level, typically ranging between 2.5% – 8% of an advertiser’s net media spend. AVBs can come in many forms, such as;

1.     Early Payment Discount (EPD): A payment or discount for early payment of invoices.

2.     Volume Rebate: A discount triggered by hitting a specified spend level/tier

3.     Payment from the media supplier to the agency for research or other services

4.     Bonus inventory or Value Pool which the media agency may then be able to ‘sell’ to clients that do not require an invoice

5.     Media buying for clients from trading desk within their holding company, which may have benefited from volume based incentives from media suppliers


Broadcast Advertising Clearance Committee.


Broadcasting Authority of Ireland (BAI) -  Independent regulator for radio and television broadcasters in Ireland. The Authority is to be funded through a levy on all broadcasters licensed in the State.


Broadcasters Advertising Research Board - responsible for TV audience research in the UK.


 A record of consensus between parties that can never be altered. From a mechanical perspective, it is a ledger or a database with a difference; a way of recording information that cannot be changed. Every record is immutable; hence all the history is available all the time. From a real-world point of view, imagine a world, where you can trade anything with anybody without the need to trust a certain middleman. It introduces and makes possible the idea of self-governance where technology provides an irrefutable vehicle of trust between two parties.


Coverage and frequency analysis system used in outdoor planning.

Centre  Break Churn         

An Advertising break within a TV programme. Turnover of subscribers/numbers of disconnections.  Churn is usually quoted as a percentage.  Usually refers to cable and satellite subscriptions.


The number of print copies sold. ABC circulation refers to an audited circulation by the Audit Bureau of Circulation.


A user clicking on your banner to gain access to your website.

 Click-thru Rate (%)     

Or CTR (click-through rate) is the frequency of Click-throughs as a percentage of impressions served. It should only be used as a    diagnostic metric. It gives you a view into the potential interest level in finding out more about that specific digital content. It should not be used as an end objective; this is a common misuse of the CTR metric. It currently hovers at the low rate of 0.09 percent.


Are software tools or web services for creating and amending website content. Typically, CMS are browser-based web applications running on a server. All enable users to readily add new pages within an existing page template

Consent  Management Platform  (CMP)     

Is a platform that can be used by the publishers, For requesting, receiving and storing users’ consent. For storing the list of preferred vendors along with why they’ve been collecting the users’ information. A user can set their consent status for all the vendors (Individually or in bulk manner) on a publisher’s site. CMPs will employ a user-friendly interface to let consumers allow/disallow vendors to track, target, share their online footprint.

Conversion Index  

Measures the efficiency of a station/spot in reaching a certain sub-category i.e. for every 100 TVRs bought on RTÉ amongst Adults 15+, 69 are delivered amongst ABC1s.  Conversion index reads 69


Information to track where and what you’ve done on a website.  Useful when it comes to sites, that requires registration or with configurable sites, the cookie can be used to keep track of what interest users most.  The site can then present the most relevant information firs

Cookie Bombing          

A fraudulent way of trying to take credit for conversions for which you had no influence over by serving large volumes of the same ad to every user you can find in rarely seen ad positions buried at the bottom of a page. The perpetrators of cookie-bombing are often low-quality networks, publishers and affiliate networks.


The estimate of the size of the audience relative to the total universe.  For example, the coverage of TV homes is 93% meaning 93% of all homes in Ireland have a TV/


Cost-Per-Acquisition of a defined business outcome. Cost of advertising based on a visitor taking some specifically defined action in response to an ad. "Actions" include such things as a sales transaction, a customer acquisition, or a click.


Cost- Per-Click. The cost an advertiser pays to acquire a click-through.


Cost-Per-Lead based on the number of generated leads recorded.

Also known as Cost per Thousand. M is the Roman numeral for Thousand, hence CPM rather than CPT.  Online advertising can be purchased based on what it costs to show the ad to one thousand viewers (CPM).


Cost-Per-Thousand.  Cost of delivering one thousand impressions of a specified population:
Cost divided by Impressions or people (in 000s) = CPT/CPM

100 TVRs on RTÉ amongst ABC1s =1,367,000 Impressions

Universe 1,367,000 x 100% = 1,367,000

Cost 100 TVRs           €48,350

CPT                             €48,350/1,367 = €35.37


Customer Relationship Management/Marketing

Cross-device tracking         

Describes the myriad ways platforms, publishers and ad tech companies try to identify individual Internet users across
Smartphones, tablets and desktop computers.

Customer data platform (CDP)

A  customer data platform is a marketer-managed system that creates a persistent, unified customer database that is accessible to other systems.  A CDP can connect all types and sources of customer data, whether internal or external, structured or unstructured, batch or streaming. This allows you to form a much more comprehensive view and to better understand your customers, and act on it even in real-time.


Outdoor advertising is usually on display for a 14-day period known as a cycle.  There are 26 cycles in a calendar year.  A posting calendar outlines the relevant dates

Data 1st Party

This is data collected by website operators — publishers,  e-commerce sites, brand homepages, etc. — about the actions their users take while on that site. Publishers can use first party data to better sell their own inventory by offering more precise targets.

Data,  2nd Party             

This is first-party data that advertisers buy directly from the source either through a DMP or a direct relationship with a publisher or advertiser.

Data, 3RD Party              

This is the data aggregated from sources other than the  website operator, usually collected through cookies. It’s expensive and sometimes imprecise but there is a lot of it.

Data   Controller             

In the context of Data Privacy and GDPR, a data controller determines the purpose of collecting, storing and processing personal data.

 Data Management Platform (DMP)                

Platforms that allow advertisers, agencies, publishers and together to control their own first-arty audience and campaign data, compare it t third-party audience data, and offer the ability to make more  informed media buying and campaign planning decisions via behavioural targeting or extending audiences via lookalike modelling. Advertisers and agencies generally utilise DMPs to buy more effectively while publishers typically use DMPs to segment their audiences and sell more effectively.

Data  Processor              

In the context of Data Privacy and GDPR, a data processor processes personal data on behalf of the data controller.

 Data Signals 

A data signal is information about your audience or their context that can influence your campaign. The three most common data signals advertisers can use are
1.     Audience signals:
Information about the types of people you’re trying to target
2.     Media signals:
Information about the context your user is looking at where your message might appear
3.     Environmental signals: External factors that may influence the mindset of your users when they’re exposed to your advertising


The time segments into which a day is divided by for the purpose of selling advertising time. Primary dayparts are morning (or AM drive), midday, afternoon (or PM drive), and evening. Often applied to segments which are used by TV / Radio stations in allocating rates to different parts of the day - but there are no generally agreed exact definitions by time period.


A highly automated and rules-driven approach to advertising that encompasses two technologies; dynamic creative and dynamic creative optimisation. A good metaphor to call to mind is that DCO is like an Ad factory. This is where the dynamic creative comes in. DCO Ad units use feeds of data and a set of business rules to generate hundreds and sometimes thousands of unique creative on the fly. To be effective, large scale campaigns are mandatory.


Linking beyond a home page to a page inside the site with content pertinent to the advert.

Digital Attribution Modelling             

The science of assigning credit to each digital touch point (publisher, Ad Network) of the customer journey based on that touch point’s influence on the ultimate conversion decision. The ‘last touch’ model is most commonly used today. There are some major shortcomings with this model in that it inherently assigns far too much value to the bottom of the purchase funnel, and is highly susceptible to attribution fraud. Also. it doesn’t consider factors outside of digital such as TV, Outdoor, Press, Radio, as a result it doesn’t give you a complete picture

Deal ID           

In digital trading, it’s the unique number assigned to an automated ad buy, used to match buyers and sellers individually, based on a variety of criteria negotiated beforehand.


Direct Marketing/Mail.


Digital Rights Management. Technology that protect the rights of content owners and enables the digital content to be charged for on any digital platform.


Direct Response TV.


The Office of the Data Protection Commissioner is the independent national authority responsible for upholding the EU fundamental right of individuals to data privacy through the enforcement and monitoring of compliance with data protection legislation in Ireland.


Demand-Side Platforms (DSPs). Is a system that facilitates digital advertisers to connect directly to multiple sources of inventory supply and provide such benefits as workflow simplification, integrated reporting, algorithmic buying optimisation, and the ability to make impression-level bids (RTB)

Digital  dPod          

Outdoor digital format usually in shopping centres

Duplicated  audience   

That portion of an audience that is reached by more than one media  vehicle.

Econometric modelling

Econometrics can measure the impact your communications have on sales and profit. It can also forecast the effects of future campaigns using the past. Econometrics are based on statistical. Gives top level results… but it does not provide the necessary digital detail for digital comms planning.


Effective CPM rate is the cost at which you would buy ad impressions is they sold on a CPM basis. It’s a simple way of comparing every media buy using just one buying model. The eCPM model is most widely used in programmatic buying.

End Break     

Advertising break between two distinct TV programmes.     


Electronic Programming Guide – Allows viewers to select programmes by genre and create selections of favourite channels.


Enhanced Message Service – EMS technology allows mobile phone users to send simple pictures sounds and animations alongside their written text message.

Fixing Charge         

A charge is imposed when an advertiser wishes to fix their ad in a certain position - generally first ad or last ad in the advertising break. Most commonly used in Radio and TV media channels.

Flight Dates  

Start and end dates of an advertising campaign.

Floor rate     

Used in RTB in digital media channels were the minimum price is fixed at which the publisher is prepared to sell their inventory.


No. of times a person sees the advertising message

324 ABC1 GRPs reaches 76% of the audiences at least once.
The average frequency is 4.3

Gross Rating Points   = Av. Frequency


        324/76                 = 4.3

 Effective Frequency        

Level of coverage and frequency calculated to deliver the optimum awareness/sales performance i.e.
90% of primary target audience seeing campaign 1+ times
66% 2+ times etc.


Google Analytics is a freemium web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic


The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a new legislation that came into force on the 25th of May 2018, replacing the existing Data Protection Act. It is significantly more comprehensive in its definition of what comprises personal data, and people’s rights surrounding its collection, processing, storage and use. Companies —EU-based or otherwise —must build data protection into their system design and infrastructure, or risk severe penalties. It unifies legislation across the EU with the aim of strengthening the privacy rights of European citizens.


Sum of all the individual ratings in a media schedule is called gross rating points

Header  Bidding      

Is a process that allows marketers a first-look at inventory that  publishers would normally hold back for direct bookings. If the publisher can make a better price selling an impression programmatically then their ad sever will make the decision automatically rather than fulfilling direct bookings first.

Header Bidding Wrapper

Is a management system used by publishers to collect bid responses  from multiple demand partners in one central place. This technology layer allows publishers to more easily manage their buying partners and to set header bidding standards such as latency.


Home Page Take Over; A takeover on a website where all formats are for a single advertiser.


Internet Advertising Bureau, trade organisation for digital advertising.


Institute of Advertising Practitioners of Ireland, industry body for agencies.


Irish Direct Marketing Association.


Ratings expressed in thousands of people.


Joint National Listenership Research. Quarterly survey on radio listenership across all Irish stations across key demographics.


Joint National Outdoor Research. Launched in Sept ’05 the JNOR is a quantitative measurement of consumer exposure to outdoor advertising.


The L.E.A.N principles are an industry initiative to improve the overall quality of the consumer’s experience by focusing on Lighter creative, Encrypted ad calls, Ad Choices supported user feedback and Non-intrusive experiences that don’t rely on invasive tactics such as auto-play or sound-enabled creative. The LEAN principles are intended as guidance for all parties in the production of digital creative assets to follow to minimise the number of users installing an ad blocker on their devices.

Location Based Services (LBS)

A range of services that are provided to mobile subscribers based on the geographical location of their handsets.


Life Time Value – Cost of keeping a customer

Native Adv.   

Is a form of online advertising that matches the form and function of the platform on which it appears. The word "native" refers to the content's coherence with other media on the platform. Similar in many ways to advertorials most commonly found in mainstream press and magazine titles.

 News Brands Ireland

Formerly National Newspapers of Ireland (NNI), is the representative body for all national newspapers (print and online).

Net Reach     

This is your unduplicated campaign reach

Non-personal data (anonymous data)

Is any information that falls outside the scope of GDPR. This information is also known as anonymous data.

Non-Personally Identifiable Information (Non-PII)

Information that may correspond to a particular person, account or profile, but is not sufficient to identify, contact or locate the person.


Out of Home.  Term used to cover all forms of outdoor - Posters, transport, banners, shopping trolleys, taxis, etc.


Opportunity to See / Opportunity To Hear.  % of primary target audience who see the/hear the campaign and their average exposure. 76% of ABC1s see/hear with an average OTS/OTH of 4.

Open Ad Exchange             

Unlike private exchanges, which operate like exclusive night clubs, you don’t need to know someone who knows someone to get access. Any agency, advertiser or publisher may participate in trading in an open exchange.

Page Views

The number of times a web page has been successfully served to a user's browser.


In audience research, a continuing sample of people or households that are measured repeatedly.

People meter          

Method of audience measurement used by Nielsen. The people meter (meter) is attached to TV sets in panel homes to record viewing.  Members of the home use a remote to log in to record that they are viewing. This data is sent to Nielsen daily for the production of TV ratings.


Evaluation of a campaign's achievements after the event, often in terms of coverage and frequency.

Private Exchange          

Private Exchanges, also known as PMPs are used by publishers to more carefully Exchange control who can buy their inventory, and at what price. Instead of throwing its ad impressions out into an “open” exchange and letting anyone buy them, a publisher might instead wish to offer them to a handful of its favourite advertiser clients, or an agency it has a close relationship with.


Pay-Per-View for specific programmes, usually on digital cable or satellite.


Performance Related Incentive Payment. A PRIP payment is a way of evaluating your agency. It essentially aligns agency performance with a company's marketing objectives. Payment is pending the achievement of many pre-agreed targets/criteria. Tends to be done on an annual basis and generally covers all aspects of the agency relationship from planning/buying to team performance etc… 

Prog. Buying             

Programmatic Buying describes online display advertising that is aggregated, booked, flighted, analysed and optimized via demand side software interfaces and algorithms. While it includes RTB it also includes non RTB methods and buy types such as Facebook Ads API and the Google Display Network. Programmatic also implies the use of multi sourced data signals to inform targeting and optimization decisions


Personal Video Recorders, such as SKY+. Records programs on hard disk and allows the pause and rewind of Live TV

Supervisory  Authority             

In relation to Data Privacy and GDPR, there is a SA in each EU country are responsible for enforcing the GDPR. In the Ireland, this is the responsibility of the Data Protection Commissioner’s Office (DPO).

 Total Audience Plan (TAP)              

An advertising schedule that places ads in a pattern that utilizes all station audience dayparts for maximum station audience exposure.


A YouTube product that gives viewers the ability to choose which video ads they want to watch and when – meaning you won’t pay for unwanted views. There are two types of TrueView ads (known as formats):

1.     In-stream ads run before, during, or after videos on YouTube or on video partner sites and apps. They give viewers the option to skip the ad after 5 seconds.

2.     Video discovery ads appear in places where viewers discover content, like on YouTube search results, next to related videos, on the YouTube homepage, and on partner sites and apps. They invite people to click on a thumbnail to watch your video ad and help surface your videos to an interested audience.

Qtr. Hour Audience       

Individuals viewing a station at least five minutes in a specific 15 minute period

Rate Card     

A price list showing rates charged for commercial time or space.


Percentage of a specified population exposed to a single issue of a print or broadcast vehicle.


Radio Joint Audience Research. Single audience measurement for radio listening in the UK.


Percentage of a given population exposed to at least one of the advertising messages or a programme over the course of a schedule. For example, a campaign achieved 324 ratings for ABC1s, and reached 76% of ABC1s one or more times and 44% three or more times The Late Late Toy Show reached (those who viewed at least 1 minute) 35% of ABC1s. The term coverage may also be used.


Or remarketing; allows advertisers to show a follow up message to people who have already engaged with their ad or visited their website.


Recency Frequency and Monetary value – customer segmentation.


Request for Information. A standard business process whose purpose is to collect written information regarding suppliers.


Run of Site; a digital advert placed at the discretion of a website owner to run anywhere on the website.

Recency Planning       

Based on the idea that most advertising works by influencing the brand choice of consumers who are ready to buy


See programmatic buying.


Search Engine Marketing
The process which aims to get websites listed prominently in search-engine results through search-engine optimisation, sponsored search and paid inclusion.


Search Engine Optimisation.

The process which aims to get websites listed prominently within search engine’s organic (algorithmic, spidered) search results. It involves making a site ‘search engine friendly’


Special Interest Group.  Usually refers to Consumer Behaviour Data collected within survey’s such as JNRS.


Share of Market.


Share of Viewing.  Calculation is on minute-by-minute viewing and an average is taken for a specified period time segment/week/month. Often referred to as “audience share” or “percentage share”


Unsolicited junk e-mail


A programme which crawls the web and fetches web pages in order for them to be indexed against keywords. Used by search engines to formulate search result pages

Sponsorship Sting           

The intro and out sting that bookmarks the sponsored programme. They vary in terms of length from 10 second to 7 second to 5 second.


Supply-Side Platforms

More commonly known as yield managers/optimisers, supply-side platforms help publishers better manage and price their digital inventory. Premium publishers favour SSPs as they are able to protect proprietary audience data and brand reputation. SSPs currently represent some of the largest sources of display ad inventory


Target Group Index. Single source survey which covers product and brand usage, media consumption and attitudes of the population


Time-shift viewing is the recorded viewing of programmes or recordings on video and viewed at play (i.e. not fast forwarded) within 160 hours (7 days) of transmission


Television Rating, also known as a rating - percentage of a specified population exposed to a single issue of a print or broadcast vehicle.

A rating for a TV spot is based on the total of a target audience who saw the minute the spot is broadcast in. The rating for a programme is the minute-by-minute viewing averaged over the length of a programme and converted to the percentage of the target audience.

Unbilled Media         

Unbilled media occurs when the media owner or sales house does not invoice the agency in full for the media estimated and/or delivered.

Unique Imp

Is a served impression that’s counted against one individual per internet browser session or daily depending on the analytics software and cookies used.


No of individuals within a given demographic group.


Video-On-Demand relates video advertising served onto platforms or networks Video ads fall into two large categories: linear ads and non-linear ads.

Linear ads appear before, after, or during a break in the video content (otherwise known as pre-roll, post-roll, or mid-roll). For example, RTE Player, Channel 4oD and Three Player. Companion ads are typically served with the video ads that run on players. 

Non-linear ads appear along with the video content. Overlays, a common non-linear ad format, cover part of the video as it plays. For example, YouTube and Brightrol.l

Vast Tags     

Digital Video Ad Serving Template is a specification is a universal XML schema for serving ads to digital video players

Virtual Reality           

Or VR is defined as the use of computer technology to create a simulated environment.  Virtual reality can be described as an act of taking you out from the real world and placing you in an imaginary world.


Usually refers to campaign weight, most often expressed in GRPs (Gross Rating Points)

White List     

An accepted list of contacts to receive email from (and should not be filtered or sent to the trash or spam folder) or a list of websites that an advertiser will permit their ads to be place on